RE-TRANSLATED into the semi-original Chinook
(with a further English re-translation)
from the published source:
“Four Wagons West,”
by Roberta Frye Watt, Binsford & Mort, Portland Ore., 1934.
Originally published in the Seattle Sunday Star, Oct. 29 1887.


This retranslation is an attempt to unravel the extrapolations and embellishments of Chief Seattle’s treaty speech of 1853 by returning it to the Chinook Jargon, in which it was first comprehended by white men.  Seattle himself spoke in Lushootseed, the Salishan language of the Suguamish people, and his speech was translated into the commonly-spoken Chinook Jargon by one of the other people of his tribe.  I have done my best to re-translate this famous text, but it was not easy and is by no means coherent – I have given up for now on the last few paragraphs because they seem to be entirely inexpressible in Chinook, as does much of the speech as a whole.
Anyone familiar with the Jargon will immediately recognize that there are many adjectives and ideoms in the supposed “authentic text” that simply could not have been said in Chinook.  What appears to have happened is that the white witness to this speech, who apparently understood some Jargon himself, remembered its basic context and tried to paraphrase it years later – adding copious amounts of poetry and verbal embellishment that, again, are simply not possible in Chinook.  The writer’s intent was no doubt good-hearted, but his memories of the speech and his observations on the fate of native people seem interwoven with whatever the original words of Seattle’s translator must have been.


 In some cases below I have (I think) been able to deconstruct the emendation, in others to paraphrase what seemed to have been the original Chinook.  In some sections, however, it is pretty clear that the English phrasing given either did not exist in the original Chinook (or the original Lushootseed) or does not resemble what else might have been said in the Jargon itself.  I have tried to render even these extrapolated sections into Chinook, although those sections about which I have doubts I have put in square editorial brackets and/or provided alternatives.  Nonetheless I must aver that my entire translation seems awkward and belaboured, and that the original Chinook phrasing must have been quite different from either the published version or my re-translation of it.  I fully admit that my command of Chinook Jargon syntax is not the best, and my word-order below is quite English in origin, although I have tried to do my best.
Other than grammar, technical re-translation problems concern the many superfluous adjectives in the “authentic” text, and also the use of subjunctives and conditionals (could, should, would) and other verbs which would have been cumbersome – or even impossible – to express in Chinook, and in any case appear to be part of the extrapolations added by the white transcriber.  Chinook speech was much more direct and “active” in voice, and the complex phrasing of the English version seems very unlikely to have anything to do with the original because of this.  The well-known line about buffalo may have originally been made in reference to deer or elk, so rather than “hiyu hyas moos-moos” I have used “hiyu hyas moolock” (many great elk, or many moose).  Futhermore, the published version has Seattle saying that his people were pushed westward; this is definitely not the case and would be part of the emendation of the white transcriber.  Similarly the use of “your God” and “our God” as apposites would have been difficult to render in the Jargon; since “Saghalie Tyee” is commonly regarded to be of Christian invention, I think it quite probable that the Lushootseed name for “the Great Spirit” was used, even in the Jargon rendering of the day; I do not know what this word was so have used “nsaika Saghalie Tyee” instead as no other term is available (“hyas tamanawhis” would simply not work and has much more supernatural overtones than religious ones).  One thing that has perplexed me about Seattle’s discussion of religion (about 2/3 of the way through) is that I understood him to have been a converted Catholic, who could not have been talking about “our” God or “your” God; perhaps he was only talking about how the same God had been unkind to his people; there is no way to know.


As for the English re-retranslation, I have for the most part stuck with a literal rendition as much as possible, with occasional comments or alternative translations given in square brackets.  What struck me as I was deconstructing the Chinook version was that the necessary Jargon ideoms, and sometimes of the available alternative interpretations, infer a much darker tone to Seattle’s original speech, which seems to have been much more grim-faced, bitter and tragic than the “white-washed” published version claims.  In particular, some of the more cloying and submissive phrases of the published version turn out to be possibly quite different in the original – defiant, even condemnatory.


CHIEF SEATTLE’S 1854 ORATION
 
Yonder sky that has wept tears of compassion upon my people for centuries untold, and which to us appears changeless and

Okook saghalie yaka mamook tumtum kopa naika tillicum kopa laly ahnkuttie, pe nsaika nanitch mitlite kwanesum, klonas halo

This sky that has made compassion [had feeling] for my people from time immemorial, and we see being forever, maybe [will]
eternal, may change. Today is fair. Tomorrow it may be overcast with clouds. My words are like the stars that never change.

mitlite kwanesum alki.  Alta mitlite kloshe.  Tomollah klonas mamook smoke [mamook polaklie].  Naika wawa mitlite kahkwa tsiltsil yaka mitlite kwanesum.

not exist forever [into the] future.  Now [in the present] it is good.  Tomorrow maybe there will be clouds [there will be darkness].  My words are like stars that exist always [i.e. my words will always be].

Whatever Seattle says, the great chief at Washington can rely upon with as much certainty as he can upon the return of the sun

Kah Seathl mahsh wawa, hyas tyee kopa Washington mamook skookum tumtum kopa naika, kahkwa chako kilapi sun,

What Seathl says [orders], the great chief in Washington can believe in me [be strong-hearted towards me], as comes back the sun,
or the seasons. The white chief says that Big Chief at Washington sends us greetings of friendship and goodwill. This is kind of

pi chako kilapi cole illahee.  Okook tkope tyee wawa kah Hyas Tyee kopa Washington mahsh wawa kopa nsaika kopa mitlite sikhs, kopa mamook kloshe.  Okook kloshe kopa

and as come back the winter [the coldness of the land].  This white chief says that the Great Chief in Washington sends word [orders] to us to be friends, to be good [to fix things up].  This good of [for]
him for we know he has little need of our friendship in return. His people are many. They are like the grass that covers vast

yaka, kehwa nsaika kumtux yaka halo tikegh nsaika mitlite sikhs kopa yaka.  Yakas tillikums mitlite hiyu.  Klaska mitlite kahwka tupso kopa

him,  but we know he does not need us to be friends to him.  His people are many.  They are as grass

prairies. My people are few. They resemble the scattering trees of a storm-swept plain. The great, and I presume — good, White

kloshe illahee.  Naika tillikum mitlite tenas hiyu.  Klaska nanitch kahkwa whim-stick kopa illahee kopa storm [hyas wind].  Hyas – pi naika tumtum – kloshe, Tkope

on good land [flat land, valley bottom].  My people are few.  They look like fallen trees on the land from a storm [great wind].  The great – and I hope – good, White

Chief sends us word that he wishes to buy our land but is willing to allow us enough to live comfortably. This indeed appears

Tyee mahsh wawa kah yaka tikegh mahkook nsaika illahee pi tikegh potlatch kopa nsaika kopet hiyu kopa mitlite kloshe.  Nawitka, okook nanitch

Chief sends word [orders] that he wants to buy our land and wants to give to us only enough to be comfortable [to be good, to behave].  Indeed, this looks
just, even generous, for the Red Man no longer has rights that he need respect, and the offer may be wise, also, as we are no

kahkwa kloshe, kopet hiyu kloshe, kehwa siwash tillikums alta iskum law pi tyee yaka tikegh mamook youtl, pe klonas yakas wawa mitlite kloshe kumtux, pe nsaika alta halo

like good, even much good, and Indian people now have law and chief he wants to be proud [the original English has no Jargon equal], and his word maybe is good thought {well understood], and we now do not
longer in need of an extensive country.

tikegh iskum hyas illahee.

need to have a great country [much land].

There was a time when our people covered the land as the waves of a wind-ruffled sea cover its shell-paved floor, but that time

Laly ahnkuttie mitlite hiyu siwash tillikums, kahkwa wind pe saltchuck, pe kahkwa hykwa, pe kahkwa klogh-klogh, pe okook sun

Long ago there were many Indian people, like wind on the sea, like shell-money shells, like oysters, but that day

long since passed away with the greatness of tribes that are now but a mournful memory. I will not dwell on, nor mourn over,

mitlite kopet ahnkuttie, pe hiyu siwash tillikums alta mitlite kopet ikta kopa mamook cly tumtum.  Naika mamook wawa pe mamook cly kopa

is ended long ago, and many Indian peoples now are only something to cry over [to lament].  I will not speak nor make tears over
our untimely decay, nor reproach my paleface brothers with hastening it, as we too may have been somewhat to blame.

nsaika chako cultus, pi mahsh wawa kopa Bostonmans [tkope tillikums] kopa mamook okook kahkwa, pi klonas nsaika tenas mamook kunamoxt, [pe shem iskum kopa nsaika].

our coming to waste, and I will not make words to Americans [white people] for making this come to pass, and maybe we [ourselves] somewhat have done this together [and the shame is ours].
Youth is impulsive. When our young men grow angry at some real or imaginary wrong, and disfigure their faces with black

Tenas man mitlite youtl [Siwash tillikums mitlite youtl].  Kah nsaika tenas mans chako solleks kopa cultus mamook pe mesachie mamook, pe mamook tzum klaskas siaghosts kopa klale

Young men are proud [Indian people are proud].  When our young men come to anger for worthless deeds [reasons] or truly evil deeds, pe make mark [on] their faces with black
paint, it denotes that their hearts are black, and that they are often cruel and relentless, and our old men and old women are

pent, okook mitlite kahkwa klaskas mamook tumtum mamook klale, pe klaska mitlite mesachie pe lemolo, pe nsaika oleman pe lummieh

paint, this is like they feel black-hearted, and they are violent and wild, and our old men and women
unable to restrain them. Thus it has ever been. Thus it was when the white man began to push our forefathers ever westward.

wake skookum mamook kow klaska.  Kahkwa mitlite kopa ahnkuttie, kopa laly ahnkuttie, kopa kwanesum.  Kahkwa okook kah Bostonmans chako mahsh Siwash tillikums kopa [illahee kopa] klip sun.

cannot tie [restrain] them.  Such it has been of old, since time immemorial, and forever [it has been and will always be].  Thus it was so when Americans came to push Indian peoples towards the land of the setting sun [towards the sunset].
But let us hope that the hostilities between us may never return. We would have everything to lose and nothing to gain.

Pe nsaika tumtum kopa puk-puk pe solleks kopa nsaika kopa klaska klonas wake chako kilapie.  Nsaika iskum hiyu kopa mahsh, pe halo kopa skookum tolo.

But we think that fighting and anger between us and them maybe will not come back.  We have much to throw away, and nothing to be able to gain.

Revenge by young men is considered gain, even at the cost of their own lives, but old men who stay at home in times of war,

Tenas man mamook tumtum pe kilapie solleks mitlite ikta tolo, pe mahsh klaska wind kopa okook, pe oleman klaska mitlite kopa house kopa puk-puk

Young men think that to return anger is to win, and throw their lives away for this, while old men they are in the house during war
and mothers who have sons to lose, know better.

pe mama klaska mitlite tenas kopa mahsh – klaska okook mamook kumtux elip kloshe.

and mothers they have children to lose – these understand better.

Our good father in Washington–for I presume he is now our father as well as yours, since King George has moved his

Nsaika kloshe papa kopa Washington – naika mamook tumtum yaka mitlite nsaika papa alta, elip msaikas, pe alta Kingchauch mamook yakas

Our good father in Washington – I believe he is our father now, as well as yours, for now Kingchauch [the British] have made his [their]
boundaries further north–our great and good father, I say, sends us word that if we do as he desires he will protect us. His

kullaghan elip kopa cole illahee – nsaika hyas pe kloshe papa, nawitka, mahsh wawa kopa nsaika pe poos nsaika mamook kahkwa yaka tikegh, yaka mamook kloshe [pe kloshe] nanitch kopa nsaika.  Yakas

boundary more towards the north [the cold land] – our great and good father, indeed, orders to us that if we do like he says, he will [fix things and] watch over us.  His
brave warriors will be to us a bristling wall of strength, and his wonderful ships of war will fill our harbors, so that our ancient

hyas skookum sojers mitlite kopa nsaika skookum, pe yakas hyas ships mitlite kopa nsaika chuck, kahkwa okook tillikums klaska ahnkuttie mamook puk-puk kopa nsaika, okook

very strong [brave] soldiers will be strong for us, and his great ships will be on our waters, as those people who of old have made war on us, those

enemies far to the northward — the Haidas and Tsimshians — will cease to frighten our women, children, and old men. Then in

tillikums kopa cole illahee – Haidas pe Tshimshians – chako kopet mamook kwass nsaika klootchmans, tenas, pe olemans.  Kah

people from the north [the cold land] – Haidas and Tsimshians – will come to stop making frightened our women, young, and old men.  Then
reality he will be our father and we his children. But can that ever be? Your God is not our God! Your God loves your people

nawitka yaka mitlite nsaika papa pe naika mitlite yaka tenas.  Pe skookum mitlite okook?  Msaika Saghalie Tyee mitlite wake nsaika Saghalie Tyee!  Msaika Saghalie Tyee mamook kloshe mamook [pe kloshe] nanitch kopa msaika tillikums,

indeed he is our father and we are his children.  And can this be?  Your God is not our God!  Your God makes good and watches over your people,

and hates mine! He folds his strong protecting arms lovingly about the paleface and leads him by the hand as a father leads an

pe halo tikegh kloshe kopa naika tillikum!  Yaka iskum kopa yaka skookum lemah kopa tkope tillikums, pe klatawa kopa klaska kahkwa papa klatawa

and does not want to be good to my people!  He takes in his strong arms [hands] over white people, and walks with them like a father walks
infant son. But, He has forsaken His Red children, if they really are His. Our God, the Great Spirit, seems also to have

kopa tenas.  Pe Yaka mamook mahsh Siwash tillikums, poos klaska nawitka mitlite kopa Yakas.  Nsaika Saghalie Tyee, weght

with his son.  But He has thrown away the Indian peoples, if they really are His.  Our God [Lushootseed name], also
forsaken us. Your God makes your people wax stronger every day. Soon they will fill all the land. Our people are ebbing away

mamook mahsh nsaika.  Msaika Saghalie Tyee mamook msaika tillikums elip skookum ikt sun kopa ikt sun.  Laly alki klaska mamook pahtl konaway illahee.  Nsaika tillikum mitlite elip tenas

has thown us away.  Your God makes your people more strong day by day.  Not long from now they will fill all the land.  Our people are less [more few]

like a rapidly receding tide that will never return. The white man’s God cannot love our people or He would protect them. They

kahkwa hyak klip chuck, kahkwa halo kwanesum mamook kilapie.  Saghalie Tyee kopa tkope tillikums wake mamook kloshe pe wake kloshe nanitch kopa nsaika tillikums (pe Yaka mamook kloshe nanitch) .  Klaska

like fast ebbing water, such as will never return.  God [the heavenly chief] of the white men does not make good nor watch over my people [the last phrase seems redundant and must be superfluous].  They

seem to be orphans who can look nowhere for help. How then can we be brothers? How can your God become our God and

mitlite kahkwa tenas klaksta iskum halo papa, halo mamo, klaksta wake skookum klatawa kah kopa help.  Kahta nsaika skookum kahkwa kahpo [ikt tillikum]?  Kahta skookum msaika Sahglie Tyee chako mitlite nsaika Saghalie Tyee pe

are as children who have no father, no mother, they are not able to go anywhere for help.  How we can be brothers [one people]?  How can your God come to be our God and
renew our prosperity and awaken in us dreams of returning greatness? If we have a common Heavenly Father He must be

mamook chee nsaika hyas, weght iskum hiyu chickamin, pe hiyu samman?  Poos nsaika iskum konamoxt ikt Saghalie Tyee, Yaka 

make a-new us great, again to have much metal, and much fish?  If we have together one God, He
partial, for He came to His paleface children. We never saw Him. He gave you laws but had no word for His red children whose

tikegh elip, kehwa Yaka chako kopa yakas tkope tenas.  Nsaika wake kwanesum nanitch Yaka.  Yaka mahsh kopa msaika law, pe wake mahsh wawa kopa Siwash tillikum, klaksta okook

wants more [wants first], for H came to his white children.  We never saw Him.  He gave you law, and gave no law to the Indian people, they who

teeming multitudes once filled this vast continent as stars fill the firmament. No; we are two distinct races with separate origins

kopa ahnkuttie mitlite hiyu kopa konaway illahee, kahkwa tsil-tsil kopa saghalie.  Wake – nsaika moxt huloima tillikums, kopa huloima ahnkuttie

from ancient times were many on all the land, as stars in the heavens.  No – we are two different peoples, with different pasts

and separate destinies. There is little in common between us.

pe huloima alki.  Mitlite wake kahkwa kopa nsaika kopa msaika, konamoxt.

and different futures.  There is no similarity between us and you…..
To us the ashes of our ancestors are sacred and their resting place is hallowed ground. You wander far from the graves of your

Lacorp kopa nsaika ahnkuttie tillikums mitlite tamanass, pe kah klaksta mamook moosum mitlite tamanass illahee.  Msaika klatawa siah kopa memaloose illahee kopa msaikas

The bodies [I have coined a French loan-word here as the Jargon has no equivalent] of our bygone people are magical [sacred], and where the are sleeping is magical [spiritual] ground.  You travel far from the land of your dead and your
ancestors and seemingly without regret. Your religion was written upon tablets of stone by the iron finger of your God so that

ahnkuttie tillikums, pe nsaika nanitch msaika iskum wake tumtum kopa klaska.   Msaika law kopa ahnkuttie mitlite mamook tzum kopa stone kopa chickamin lemah kopa msaika Saghalie Tyee, kahkwa

ancestors, and we see you do not feel for them.  Your law in ancient times was wirttten on stone with the metal hand of your God, so that
you could not forget. The Red Man could never comprehend or remember it. Our religion is the traditions of our ancestors —

msaika wake skookum kopet kumtux.  Siwash tillikums skookum halo kwanesum mamook kumtux kopa yaka.  Nsaika law mitlite hyas kumtux kopa nsaika ahnkuttie tillikums –

you could not stop thinking [i.e. not forget].  Indian people can never comprehend it.  Our law is the great wisdom of our ancient people [bygone generations]
the dreams of our old men, given them in solemn hours of the night by the Great Spirit; and the visions of our sachems, and is

okook nanitch kopa nsaika tamanass man, nsaika olemans, mahsh kopa klaska kopa polaklie kopa nsaika Saghalie Tyee; pe okook mamook tzum kopa tumtum kopa nsaika tillikums.

these visions in our
written in the hearts of our people.

Your dead cease to love you and the land of their nativity as soon as they pass the portals of the tomb and wander away

Msaika memaloose tillikums kopet mamook tumtum kopa msaika, pe illahee kah klaska mitlite tenas, kahkwa klaska klatawa kopa lapote kopa memaloose pe klatawa siah
beyond the stars. They are soon forgotten and never return. Our dead never forget this beautiful world that gave them being.

enati kopa tsil-tsil.  Klaska chako kopet kumtux, pe wake kilapi.  Nsaika halo konaway kopet kumtux okook kloshe illahee, okook ahnkuttie potlatch wind kopa klaska.

They still

Weght klaska
love its verdant valleys, its murmuring rivers, its magnificent mountains, sequestered vales and verdant lined lakes and bays,

mamook kloshe nanitch yakas kloshe illahee, yaka liver, yaka chuck, yaka saghalie lamonti, (untranslateable)

and ever yearn in tender fond affection over the lonely hearted living, and often return from the happy hunting ground to visit,

pe kwanesum klaska tikegh mamook kloshe kopa klaska okook mitlite wind, pe hiyu time mamook kilapi pe klatawa pe nanitch,
guide, console, and comfort them.
 
pe mamook kloshe tumtum kopa klaska.

Day and night cannot dwell together. The Red Man has ever fled the approach of the White Man, as the morning mist flees

Sun pe polaklie wake skookum mitlite kunamoxt.  Siwash tillikums kwanesum klatawa siah kopa chako tkope tillikums, kahkwa smoke  klatawa

Day and darkness cannot be together.  Indian people forever run far from the coming of the White Man. as fog runs

 

before the morning sun. However, your proposition seems fair and I think that my people will accept it and will retire to the

kopa get-up sun.  Pe – nsaika huy-huy nanitch tenas kloshe, pe naika tumtum pe naika tillikum mamook iskum yaka, pe klaska klatawa kopa

from the rising sun.  But – your bargain looks little good [fair, but also less than good], and I feel that my people will take it, and they will go to
reservation you offer them. Then we will dwell apart in peace, for the words of the Great White Chief seem to be the words of

chee illahee msaika tikegh potlatch.  Kah nsaika mitlite huloima, kopa wake puk-puk, kopa wawa kopa Hyas Tkope Tyee mamook kahkwa wawa kopa

the new land you want to give [to them].  There we will live apart, with no quarrel, for the words of the Great White Chief are as the words to
nature speaking to my people out of dense darkness.
 
nsaika tillikums kopa hiyu polaklie.

my people of great darkness.
It matters little where we pass the remnant of our days. They will not be many. The Indian’s night promises to be dark. Not a

Mitlite cultus mahkook kah nsaika mitlite kopa alki.  Mitlite wake laly alki.  Polaklie kopa Siwash nanitch kahkwa klale.   Halo

It is unimportant [a waste, a bad bargain] where we will be in the future.  There will not be much future.  Darkness to [the twilight of] the Indians looks like blackness, without

single star of hope hovers above his horizon. Sad-voiced winds moan in the distance. Grim fate seems to be on the Red Man’s

ikt tsil-tsil mitlite kopa saghalie.  Wind mamook cly kopa konaway illahee.  Tamanass time mamook nanitch kopa ooakut kopa Siwash tillikums,

one star existing in the heavens.  Winds cry over all the lands.  An evil time is seen on the path of the Indian people,

trail, and wherever he will hear the approaching footsteps of his fell destroyer and prepare stolidly to meet his doom, as does
 
pe kah klaska mamook kwolann kopa chako tkope tillikums, klaska mitlite kunamoxt kopa memaloose, kahkwa mamook

and where they can hear the coming of white men, they will be together to death, as does
the wounded doe that hears the approaching footsteps of the hunter.
 
klootchman mowitch yaka mamook kwolann leloo.

the doe hear the wolf.
A few more moons, a few more winters, and not one of the descendants of the mighty hosts that once moved over this broad

Elip hiyu tenas moon, elip hiyu tenas cole illahee, pe wake mitlite ikt kopa tenas kopa hiyu tillikums, hyas tillikums, klaksta okook klatawa kopa konaway

Yet a few moons, yet a few winters, and

land or lived in happy homes, protected by the Great Spirit, will remain to mourn over the graves of a people once more

illahee, pe mitlite kopa kloshe house, mamook kloshe kopa Saghalie Tyee, okook klaska wake mitlite kopa mamook cly kopa memaloose illahee kopa tillikum kopa ahnkuttie mitlite elip

powerful and hopeful than yours. But why should I mourn at the untimely fate of my people? Tribe follows tribe, and nation

hyas skookum pe mamook kloshe kahkwa msaika tillikum.  Pe kahta naika mamook kopa kopet naika tillikum?   Tillikums klatawa kimtah
follows nation, like the waves of the sea. It is the order of nature, and regret is useless. Your time of decay may be distant, but

tillikums, kahkwa chuck kopa saltchuck.  [untranslateable].  Msaika time kopa chako keekwulee klonas mitlite siah, pe
it will surely come, for even the White Man whose God walked and talked with him as friend to friend, cannot be exempt from

nawitka yaka, kehwa weght tkope tillikums, klaksta okook yaka Saghalie Tyee klatawa pe mamook wawa kopa yaka kahwa sikhs kopa sikhs, mitlite wake huloima
the common destiny. We may be brothers after all. We will see.

kwanesum.  Klonas nsaika mitlite kahpo weght.  Alki nsaika nanitch.

We will ponder your proposition and when we decide we will let you know. But should we accept it, I here and now make this

Alta nsaika mamook kumtux kopa msaika mahsh wawa, pe kah nsaika mamook kumtux kopa mamook nsaika mahsh wawa kopa msaika.  Pe klonas nsaika iskum yaka, naika mahsh 
condition that we will not be denied the privilege without molestation of visiting at any time the tombs of our ancestors,

wawa kopa nsaika wake
friends, and children. Every part of this soil is sacred in the estimation of my people. Every hillside, every valley, every plain and

grove, has been hallowed by some sad or happy event in days long vanished. Even the rocks, which seem to be dumb and dead

as the swelter in the sun along the silent shore, thrill with memories of stirring events connected with the lives of my people,

and the very dust upon which you now stand responds more lovingly to their footsteps than yours, because it is rich with the

blood of our ancestors, and our bare feet are conscious of the sympathetic touch. Our departed braves, fond mothers, glad,

happy hearted maidens, and even the little children who lived here and rejoiced here for a brief season, will love these sombre

solitudes and at eventide they greet shadowy returning spirits. And when the last Red Man shall have perished, and the

memory of my tribe shall have become a myth among the White Men, these shores will swarm with the invisible dead of my

tribe, and when your children’s children think themselves alone in the field, the store, the shop, upon the highway, or in the

silence of the pathless woods, they will not be alone. In all the earth there is no place dedicated to solitude. At night when the

streets of your cities and villages are silent and you think them deserted, they will throng with the returning hosts that once

filled them and still love this beautiful land. The White Man will never be alone.

Let him be just and deal kindly with my people, for the dead are not altogether powerless.